How Denim is Made
5 Steps of Stages Making Denim
Have you ever wonder why denims are blue on one side and white on the inside? Or why the colour fades when you wear it for a prolong of time?
It is a complicated method involving dozens of steps, that which will have an impact on the final outcome of the denim, how the denim feel, and how will the colour of the denim fade.
The 5 main steps consists of raw materials, spinning, dyeing, weaving, and finishing.
Stage 1: Raw Materials
The raw material is the first phase of creating denim. And most of the denims are produced from cotton. It is well suitable for the manufacturing of garments because it is durable, comfortable and breathable.
Once the raw cotton is harvested, it goes through a process called ginning at the cultivation site. This allows the fibers to be separated from the seeds. After ginning, Raw fibers, weighing about 250 kilos are compressed into bales. Each bale has enough cotton to make roughly 400 pairs of jeans.
The quality of the cotton is based on a set of physical properties, including staple length, colour, strength, fineness and maturity.
Stage 2: Spinning
The method of converting fibers into yarn is by spinning.
It’s all about making the raw material fibers parallel, and then twisting them.
Spinning was performed by hand prior to the Industrial Revolution. There are two prevalent techniques available these days:
In 1828, ring spinning was invented, so that's the initial way. It provides a smooth and irregular yarn, resulting in tons of contrast fading. And it's a good thing.
The new spinning method was created in 1963. It is called open-end spinning and it is much cheaper and quicker. This technique produces hairier yarns that are less durable. As far as the look is concerned, the open-end denim fades with less contrast
Both techniques have three characteristics in common: thickness, texture, and yarn twist.
Stage 3: Dyeing
Dyeing is performed in a liquid containing a dyestuff by soaking the yarn.
The classic type of denim that is blue on the outside and white on the inside is called yarn dyed.
Stage 4: Weaving
Weaving is the method of transforming yarn into fabrics.
Two sets of yarn are interlaced at a 90° angle. It is usually for classic denim that’s blue on the front and mainly white on the back.
Stage 5: Fabric Finishing
The final stage of making denim is fabric finishing. A finished fabric is a treatment that changes the fabric's appearance or touch.